Different studies reflect the effectiveness of leadership style and leader behaviour. He motivates his team by empowering them and guides them with a loose reign. Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. Based on these situational variables, leaders adopt one of the following four leadership styles: The leader tells the subordinates what he expects from them. The “Great Man Theory” which asserts that leaders are born but not made has not proved to be true. Scholars A person can be a good leader if he has characteristics like popularity, confidence, intelligence, social and inter-personal skills etc. Wherever a person influences the behaviour of others, he exercises leadership. It promotes decision-making ability of employees, enhances their morale and knowledge of environmental variables. Interference of leader in task accomplishment is minimum. One of the pioneering studies in situational theories is made by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt. Civilization and its achievements, like the wheel, hinge on the hub of leadership. Typically the democratic leader: Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance. Maturity level is considered only for the specific task or function. Leadership Style Argumentative ðIntroduction Fred Smith started FedEx in the early 1970s, only two years removed from service in Vietnam in the Marine Corps. The following will be addressed: the various forms of persuasive leadership, ways leaders persuade and facilitate, and the way a leader is most persuasive and/or effective. Leaders develop team spirit amongst followers to work collectively and coordinate their activities with organisational activities. This describes relationship between leader and the members. The path goal theory is based on expectancy model of motivation according to which employees are motivated to work because they perceive their efforts will lead to desired performance and performance, in turn, will lead to certain outcomes/rewards which will help them fulfill their needs. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Leaders are more task-oriented and less relationship-oriented in their behaviour. If top managers want middle and lower-level managers to adopt authoritative style, they follow it even if they wish to orient towards employee-oriented or supportive style of leadership. ADVERTISEMENTS: Leadership is defined as âthe process in which an individual influences the group of individuals to attain a common goalâ. Informal leaders do not have formal authority over the followers. Structured task is divided into well-defined units, people know their responsibility and accountability. If the group has low desire to work and is not motivated to achieve its goals, achievement-oriented style is adopted by the leaders. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. However, all individuals with such specific features were not found to be good leaders. Constant interaction and participation of leaders and followers in decision-making processes improves communication amongst them. These situational variables define the situation to be favourable or unfavourable. Two dimensions of leader behaviour were identified: Consideration is “behaviour indicative of friendship, mutual trust, respect, and warmth in the relationship between the leader and the members of his staff.”, Initiating structure is “the leader’s behaviour in delineating the relationship between himself and members of the work group and in endeavoring to establish well-defined pattern of organisation, channels of communication and methods of production.”. For example, people are generally elected as politicians on the basis of personal traits like intelligence, self- confidence and self-assurance. Recognizes and encourages achievement. Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Principles. The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The employees being supervised. Ability to lead depends upon leader’s behaviour and not his traits. It reflects how one behaves while influencing the performance of others. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. However, it can be argued that a personâs job should be redesigned so that he is willing to make productive contribution in the organisationâs improved performance. Definitions Of Core Leadership. Trait theory In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers have taken two approaches: Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing the traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders. In this "Leadership and Management Essay" Essay on Leadership Leadership is a quality that gives you an edge over others. In today’s changing world, fear and uncertainty prevail in business organisations. Individuals who emerged as leaders could not be identified on the basis of common traits. If the leader finds that one of the elements is present (competence, commitment or team work), the leader gives credit to people for that aspect, encourages them, and continues to guide in other aspects. Leader behaviour is participative in nature. They believe as maturity level of employees increases, leadership style also varies. The motivational forces are fear, threats and punishments (i.e., negative motivation) which extract bare minimum output from the workers. (This is the favourable situation for leaders). Positions on the grid are not the only situations reflecting the leadership styles. When a person assumes the position of a leader, he displays the traits of assertion, self-confidence, decisiveness etc. Leadership is a function of the leader, follower and the situation. Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative). (b) Second, to be filled by leaders’ superiors, peers and subordinates. Rather, these two behaviours depicted four leadership styles: (a) High consideration – High initiating structure, (b) Low consideration – Low initiating structure, (c) High consideration – Low initiating structure. Subordinates accept them as leaders because they perceive them as sources of satisfying their social and psychological needs besides the formal organisational needs. This environment prevails in highly structured situations like taking off or landing an airplane, defence services where group members follow instructions rather than take part in decision-making. The leadership style is, thus, participative where leaders continue to emphasise on high relationship-oriented behaviour but as employees are matured to manage their jobs, the emphasis on task behaviour gets reduced. Based on the managerial grid, five leadership styles have been identified with varying degrees of concern for people and task. Leaders maximise output by setting structured work environment and minimum attention is paid to human needs and their satisfaction. Get a 100% Unique Essay on Leadership Style Argumentative Essay The structure of your leadership essay body will depend on the topic and the type of essay (argumentative, persuasive and so on), but generally it consists of claims and facts supporting them. (f) Traits are more often a result of leadership than the cause. Employees’ behaviour is compatible with that of the leader because of leader’s position and authority to closely supervise the activities of subordinates. The leadership style is different for different situations. Leadership and Management Corporations exist for a purpose, either profit or non-stock, non-profit organization. Transformational leadership is one of the styles of leadership that is used to motivate the employees and boost them up for better working. The following table highlights the major points of difference between successful and effective leaders: The following principles help in effective leadership: Good leaders harmonies personal goals of employees with organisational goals to effectively manage the enterprise. They maintain balance between work and employee satisfaction. The essay here argues the â¦ The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic. The Meaning of Leadership. It exploits human potential to the fullest to contribute to organisational goals most effectively. 2. Both organisation and people work for the interest of each other. Leadership occurs in all formal and informal situations. The ability to identify and work within the boundaries of one’s strengths and weaknesses. (a) Leaders do not participate in the group working. Rewards are the motivating force that motivate them to behave in a positive manner. While internals prefer participative style of management, externals refer directive style of management. When subordinates are unskilled, inexperienced and submissive. Managers are different from leaders. In order to achieve organisational goals, management must recognise that formal and informal leaders are complementary to each other. Report a Violation 11. Informal groups is a healthy sign as these groups, by and large, Support the organisational goals and do not work against the formal goals. ‘Thus, leaders cannot be differentiated from non-leaders. The group, thus, has significant control on how tasks are to be accomplished. Leader behaviour is directed towards accomplishment of the task. Subordinates self-control and direct their activities towards organisational goals. Authoritarian leaders have to direct on the visiâ¦ Employees become less resistant to change as they understand the benefits of change. While communication is two-way and leader support is increased, control over decision-making remains with the leader. Path goal theory helps to find the path towards attainment of goals set by the leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? Styles 5. Communication flows from top to bottom. It represents somewhat predictable actions of leaders which followers can predict in specific situations. Often, however, as it is within the managers' whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team. It should be the endeavour of every organisation therefore, to shift from system 1 to system 4 to achieve not only its own goals but also the individual goals. One area of growing interest is the study of individuals who have an exceptional impact on their organizations. Using this style is of mutual benefit — it allows employees to become part of the team and allows the leader to make better decisions. (e) Increase in job satisfaction and cooperation with management: Employees’ contribution to organisational goals makes them committed to their jobs and reduces inter-personal conflicts. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding). As maturity of employees increases from M1 to M2, they accept added responsibility of work but they are still not fully skilled to do so. The leadership styles at the extreme corners do not exist in absolute terms. Leaders show moderate trust and confidence in subordinates and subordinates are also, therefore, loyal towards the superiors. In the long-run, it may lead to dissatisfaction and frustration amongst workers. Transformational or Charismatic theory Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/leadership-style/. The Ohio State staff developed two sets of questionnaires: (a) One, to be filled by the leader, containing details of how he perceives himself as a leader and what appropriate style would he adopt in a particular situation. Even if leaders and followers are ready to work together, the situation may not allow them to do so. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. If they have to choose between formal and informal leaders, they are more likely to follow the informal leaders. In such cases, they are called benevolent autocratic leaders. Providing detailed guidelines for task performance, determining job duties of the team members and supervising them closely may be effective in a situation where team members do not have skills to understand the problem and the situation demands error-free, efficient and time-bound performance of the team. Don’t miss a chance to chat with experts. Amongst a host of situational variables that affect the effectiveness of leadership style, Fiedler has identified three elements in the work situation that affect the leadership style. This is characterised by high-relationship and low-task behaviour. This reduces employee turnover and absenteeism. Leadership is what leaders do. “Zeal is ardor, earnestness and intensity in the execution of work; confidence reflects experience and technical ability.” The ability to influence the behaviour of others is known as leadership. By handing over ownership, the leader can empower his group to achieve their goals. 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